So in this example in order to make $50,000.00 a year you would need to charge: Significant assistance with things such as centralised client intake and reception, marketing, obtaining finance (possibly including access to cheaper finance), employee contracts, business advice, peer support, and developments in the sector (e.g., eHealth). This does not apply to the 5th and 6th year of psychology training which require trainees to operate autonomously, usually in one-on-one consultations, where supervision does not occur in real time. A generally registered psychologist may use descriptors in combination with the title “psychologist” if: Titles not specifically associated with an approved area of practice such as ‘school psychologist’, ‘consultant psychologist’, ‘occupational psychologist’, or ‘consumer psychologist’ are acceptable provided that the psychologist does not breach the Code of Ethics by over-representing their area of expertise or practising outside their scope of competence. For example, having minimum standards of practice keeps the public safe and also upholds the reputation of the profession. If a program was on the list of approved programs when you completed it, it will still be recognised by the Board for registration. If your registration lapses, or is suspended or cancelled, you must not use the title Psychologist. If a program was on the list of approved programs when you completed it, it will still be recognised by the Board for registration. How much you make isn’t dependent on data, but on you. According to the APA survey, clinical psychologists in private practice averaged $73,738 a year with ten or less years of experience. A partnership is a legal form of business operation between two or more individuals (practitioners) who share decision-making and management and profit proportionally. Work setting, experience and also geographic region certainly have an impact on the salary range. An online search is available for inactive programs of study that are no longer delivered by an educational provider. Directors have both statutory and common law duties (including the duty not to trade whilst insolvent). A private school psychologist's salary can be affected by the grade level of the school where she practices. The Board is appointed by Government Health Minsters with the primary objective to protect the health and safety of the public. Professional associations, on the other hand, represent the interests of the psychology profession or specific groups of psychologists. Being in private practice, or any self-employment for that matter, is far from easy. Potentially a more personal service can be offered having more local roots and ties which can be more appealing to potential clients in the community – compared to a more corporatised service. ACN 000543788. Clinical, counseling and school psychologists, the group most likely to be in private practice, earned $72,220. videoconference) consultations with a client who is outside Australia establish whether they are required to be registered by the psychology regulator in that jurisdiction. Information about sole traders is kept private unlike that of a corporate entity where certain details are made public after registration. Access to directors’ and officers’ insurance against a range of potential losses in certain proscribed circumstances. 2. Private practice is a business and yet so many psychotherapists have zero business training. permanent employee, casual employee, contractor) may only change some obligations (e.g. For information on gaining approval to undertake work in addition to university placements refer to the Board’s, Policy on working in addition to placements, The New South Wales Board of the Psychology Board of Australia, The Queensland Board of the Psychology Board of Australia, The ACT/TAS/VIC Regional Board of the Psychology Board of Australia, The NT/SA/WA Regional Board of the Psychology Board of Australia, The meaning of area of practice endorsement, Endorsement transition for the public interest, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Strategy, National psychology exam online proctoring, National psychology exam candidate manual, Guidelines on area of practice endorsements, Guidelines for advertising regulated health services, Guidelines for the national psychology exam, Social media: How to meet your obligations under the National Law, English language skills registration standard FAQ, Ministerial Council directions and approval, request for historical course information, Guidelines for advertising regulated health service. As soon as you are granted general registration as a psychologist you can practise in Australia. Information about sole traders is kept private unlike that of a corporate entity … Lack of ready access to collegial support in the management of difficult cases and workloads. This is a recommendation only. Join now. Australian Indigenous Psychologists Association, Honorary Fellows, Fellows and Life Members, Psychology services in primary mental health settings: Meeting the challenges, Demonstrating safety, quality and accountability in private practice, Upskilling in tender writing for the new PHN environment, Achieving sustainability, safety and good clinical governance in a multi-site model of practice, Diversity as the key to a successful company group practice model, The challenges and opportunities of a multi-disciplinary mixed-model practice, Setting up a private practice: Issues to consider, Models of private practice: A practice guide for psychologists. A company is a type of business which operates as an incorporated legal entity regulated by the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC), as distinct from a sole trader or partnership. 1800 333 497, Fax:
These programs can be found on the approved programs of study list. Across various specialties, nurse practitioners earned an average salary of $111,840 per year ($53.77 per hour) in the US in 2019, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).. A sole trader (or a sole proprietor) is a private individual carrying out a business under their usual personal name as opposed to a partnership, trust, or company. With a “split fee” the private practice owner would give the contract counselor a percentage of the total fee collected for the practice. An immediate and regular source of clients. Not all franchise arrangements are suitable for a very small business or sole traders and usually favour a corporate structure. Street Address
The Board recognises that in some states and territories public sector industrial awards enable the employment of a psychologist in a position that has a title approved under an industrial award – i.e. When working for one of the country’s District Boards of Health, psychologists rated as “qualified” earn between NZD$65,000 and NZD$91,000. © 2020 The Australian Psychological Society Limited. “specialist clinical psychologist”, “specialist psychologist”. The Board has determined that the first four years of psychology education do not require student registration as there is no practical training and no contact with the public.
Provisional registration better represents the training pathways of psychologists than student registration. The fee at which a service is set is at the discretion of the individual psychologist so it is important to discuss this with the psychologist or clinic manager. This article provides an overview of the main business models as they apply to private practice and reviews each of these models in terms of the opportunities, challenges and some of the legal requirements of each model. Shareholders are not liable for the debts of the business and structuring as a company offers increased protection of personal assets. Efficiency benefits the same as a sole trader contributing to shared resources but with responsibility legally shared amongst each partner in the partnership. Wages typically start from $45,362 and go up to $135,538. Sometimes, private practice therapy sessions aren’t the only source of income for therapists. A firm of psychologists offering a range of services who have a managing partner or practice manager overseeing day-to-day administration.
As well as working in professional practice, some Clinical Psychologists may conduct research, or engage in teaching or supervision of provisional Psychologists. For example, if one partner is unable to meet a payment or contribution, the liability must still be borne by the remaining partners (joint and several liability). The interests of the profession and the public are often aligned, so the Board and professional associations can have common goals. Say you set a session rate of $100 per session. Individual private practice in the psychologist’s own room/s. WorkCover, superannuation guarantee, long service leave, minimum hours of work, split-shifts, penalty rates) depending on what State/Territory you are in, and what percentage of income the employee derives from your company. According to the New Zealand Government, psychologists in private practice fetch between NZD$60 and NZD$160 per hour. This browser is not supported. The variations can be extreme. 8009, Phone:
Psychologists with five to nine years of experience earn $73,900. The partners usually enter into a partnership agreement which sets out their legal rights and obligations. PO Box 38Flinders Lane
Ability to market practice as a specialised clinic/service. Psychologists with general registration have unrestricted rights to use the title Psychologist or Registered Psychologist and may undertake any work using that title. Full control of the business and how it is run. Take your place in the leading professional organisation for psychology in Australia.
All Rights Reserved. Your password has been emailed to the address we have on file. This is a model used by many GP and medical specialist clinics. In addition, it is not unusual for trainees to obtain paid workplace training positions or obtain further paid work performing duties as a provisional psychologist under supervision (subject to Board approval). Dr John Brown MAPS MCCLP, Principal Clinical Psychologist, Psych Sessions, Canberra ACT, and Suzanne Harmer, General Counsel, APS National Office. Private assets such as the home, contents and vehicles could be exposed if business debt cannot be serviced and default occurs. The first author can be contacted at [email protected]. These programs can be found on the. This can create opportunities for people to work in the private sector who are not interested in setting up their own private practice, are not sufficiently capitalised, or do not feel confident to do it – thus expanding opportunities for a greater range of psychologists to continue to practice. A psychology practice in a company structure conducting a business under a franchised name and logo. Fewer legal and tax formalities compared to setting up a partnership or company, and therefore cheaper. (03) 8662 3300, Toll free:
Provisional psychologists can start practising as soon as provisional registration is granted but only in positions that are supervised, i.e. Making decisions as a business about whether to take on employees and/or contractors can be complex and requires careful consideration. Independent associate legal agreements for health services practices can assist to better manage legal compliance and protection. The job outlook for nurse practitioners is also very positive. $72,404.00 divided by 48 weeks is $1508.42 per needed. Becoming a member of a professional association is optional.
With eleven to twenty years of experience, clinical psychologists in private practice earned $91,049, while those with 21 to … Clinical psychologists work in both public mental health services and private practice offering both short-term and long-term outpatient services to those who need help coping with all forms of psychological distress. This often means earning at least a $100,000 therapy private practice salary–or more. Some have … I don't have a private practice, but have colleagues (psychologists) who do. Any business can be an employer or take on contractors, regardless of whether the business is a sole trader, partnership or company. 3. Salaries can vary considerably depending upon a number of different factors, but you can get an idea from salary reports. The goal of a national registration and accreditation scheme was realised on 18 October 2010 when Western Australia joined the scheme and for the first time all psychologists in Australia were included on a single register. A link to reset your password will be emailed to you. An entry-level Psychologist with less than 1 year experience can expect to earn an average total compensation (includes tips, bonus, and overtime pay) of AU$67,778 … Once you’ve assessed all expenses, you’ll have a good idea of how much it costs you to keep your private practice running. Psychologists in a private practice can often set their own hours and choose how many patients they want to work with, which affects their overall income as well. This consortium model typically suits a special purpose project.
Individual private practice subletting rooms from others. Subletting of a practice room and the responsibilities attached to this. There are penalties and other consequences for false use of titles.
This brings the same challenges as a sole trader and possibly more obligations and/or responsibilities to associates. Access special offers on products and services as part of your APS Membership. For example, with a 60/40 split, the therapist that provides the session keeps 60% of the total fee collected and the practice keeps 40%. Career and school counselor: $56,3101 Clinical Psychologist: $76,990 Counselor: $47,600 Developmental Psychologist: $56,500 Engineering Psychologist: $79,818 Experimental Psychologist: $56,500 Forensic Psychologist: $59,440 Health Psychologist: $40,000 (entry-level) to $85,000 (advanced-level) Industrial-Organizational Psychologist: $109,0302 Psychiatrist: $216,090 Mental health counselors and marriage and family t… Therapists want more freedom and money than typical mental health jobs allow for. The debts are those of the company. Provisionally registered psychologists undertaking a Board-approved internship or higher degree must only use the title Provisional Psychologist. Private assets such as the family home, contents and vehicles could be exposed in circumstances where partnership debts need to be settled. As franchises are usually based on a franchise formula or proven business model and a given geographical territory, running the business will usually mean ongoing stipulated requirements about how the business operates. How much money do you want to make … Associates you with an established brand. For example, the type of employment agreement (e.g. Clinical Psychologists work in a variety of settings including private practice, hospitals, mental health facilities, community health settings and within the justice system. Their business revenue and expenses appear on their personal tax return. Psychologist, Clinical Psychologist, Medical Biller and more on Indeed.com ... Australia • Remote. Disclaimer: Published in InPsych on October 2016. As you can see, some specialties pay much more than others, and certain specialties fall below the median average income for a clinical psychologist. To be recognised for registration, psychology qualifications must be accredited by the Australian Psychology Accreditation Council (APAC) and approved by the Psychology Board of Australia. Psychology trainees in all training pathways undertake substantial periods of supervised practice in workplace placements and are therefore deemed fall into the provisional registration provisions of the National Law rather than the student registration provisions. Private Educational Services School psychologists who worked in the privately owned educational services industry earned an average annual salary of $67,190, as of 2011, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. If you work in a metro area you might be billing $200 for a 50 minute hour, but the average psychologist today is not one who only has patients who pay out of pocket, but depends on third party insurance and managed care contracts. GLAD TO SEE YOU HERE. Psychologists in private practice are operating in a business environment and by necessity, will adopt one of the various business models that function in the private practice environment. Costs obtaining any necessary initial advice and of the legal documentation to properly establish and administer the partnership such as the partnership agreement. A company may consist of one person (that is, a single director and shareholder as an alternative to being a sole trader) but it is still a separate legal ‘person’ at law.
All out of pocket. You would need to have around 15 sessions per week ($1508.42 divided by $100).
An entry-level Clinical Psychologist with less than 1 year experience can expect to earn an average total compensation (includes tips, bonus, and overtime pay) of AU$71,591 …
Sole traders may be unable to take advantage of economies of scale which could mean having to charge higher prices for their services. This efficiency may not only be cheaper but may provide more available facilities than could otherwise be afforded as a sole practitioner. Please upgrade your browser. Where you … Melbourne VIC, Postal Address
Sometimes the consortium may have a lead partner, or a dedicated company or entity to oversee the initiative and to minimise risk. Level 13, 257 Collins Street
A psychologist’s income varies according to her specialty and location, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 4. The raising of funds to finance business expansion may be more onerous. APS members get exclusive access to the logging tool to monitor and record accrued CPD hours. Directors may be required to provide personal guarantees to better secure the liabilities of the company (for example, when entering into a contract with a supplier or with a lessor for the practice premises). You can also submit a request for historical course information on the APAC website if you need to verify the accreditation status of a program that is no longer offered. Partners equally share responsibility as a group but also individually. The average annual salary for all psychologists in 2012 was $73,740. consider the appropriateness of a technology-based consultation for each client’s circumstances. Access thousands of psychologists across Australia. As with child psychiatrist, you will need to complete a longer residency in order to … This meant that it became possible to produce accurate reports on the total number of psychologists registered in Australia. Candidates undertaking a Doctoral Degree or combined Masters/PhD who have general registration but do not yet have an endorsement may only refer to themselves as a Psychologist or Registered Psychologist. Each clinician has to establish and operate his or her own independent practice. Type of Practice Counselors work in a variety of settings, depending on the services provided and the client populations. Titles not specifically associated with an approved area of practice such as ‘school psychologist’, ‘consultant psychologist’, ‘occupational psychologist’, or ‘consumer psychologist’ are acceptable provided that the psychologist does not breach the, providing psychological services to clients located in Australia will be registered with the Board regardless of where the psychologist is located, comply with the requirements of the Health Practitioner Regulation National Law and the Board’s registration standards, codes and guidelines, including the Professional Indemnity Insurance Registration Standard which requires that a psychologist is covered for all aspects of their psychology practice, ensure that their patients are informed in relation to billing arrangements for consultations and whether the patient will be able to access Medicare or private health insurance rebates, who conduct technology-based (e.g. I am wondering how to calculate how much I’d make in full-time private practice if I saw an average of 20-24 clients per week. Other business opportunities may be facilitated, for example, with government departments which may not be willing to enter into contracts with non-corporate enterprises such as sole traders. 1. Ownership of the business assets and full benefit of the business profits. Student registration is used in other health professions for individuals in undergraduate programs, where students are closely supervised in group placements and do not work independently in a practical environment. Private practice therapists, for example, may set their rates by referring to the average session fees of their local peers. This assumes a 40 hour work week. The 2019-2020 Recommended Schedule of fees has set the standard 45 to 60 minute consultation fee at $260. Casual social contact with other people sharing the offices, and opportunities for peer consultation and support. Clinical psychologists do not prescribe medication; they use psychological therapies. Stay up to date with the latest news from the APS, Working towards equitable participation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people within psychology, Not a member? Psychologists with an endorsement may use the title associated with that area of practice e.g. Over 37% of psychologists enjoy the benefits of private practice psychology – on their own, in a group, in a GP clinic or some other form (Health Workforce Australia: Australia’s Health Workforce Series – Psychologists in Focus, 2014). You can too. Becoming a family nurse practitioner (FNP) is a great way to boost your earning potential as a nurse. Further, compliance with the National Employment Standards and the relevant national awards can add complexity as well. clinical psychologist – despite the psychologist not meeting the requirements of the Board’s Area of practice endorsements registration standard. Frequently asked questions are available on the following topics: As soon as you are granted general registration as a psychologist you can practise in Australia. Forensic Psychologist. And are dictated by whether or not a therapist works for the government, a hospital or other healthcare facility, or has their own private practice. Control is in the hands of a board of directors. Company profits are not subject to the traditional. A psychologist enrolled in a Board registrar program leading to an endorsement may use the title Registrar along with the area of practice e.g. The practice or business conducted by a group of psychologists can be owned by a company in which they are shareholders and directors and in which (unless it is a more sizeable concern) proprietorship is limited. Wages typically start from $45,240 and go up to $132,670.. 32 % above national average Updated in 2019 a placement as part of an accredited higher degree or in an internship role approved by the Board. To practise as a psychologist and use the title ‘psychologist’ in Australia, it is mandatory to be registered with the Board (AHPRA supports the Board in achieving its functions). An initial outlay for legal fees in order to be properly advised about the suite of franchise documents prior to entry into the franchise relationship. Psychologists with 10-19 years of experience earn $85,497.
Provisional psychologists can start practising as soon as provisional registration is granted but only in positions that are supervised, i.e. Some contract work may be inaccessible because a company business structure is a requirement. Changes after publication may affect the accuracy of this information. Individual private practice in the psychologist’s own rooms and subletting rooms to others. Child psychologists make about $63,000 per year, while geriatric psychologists only make about $42,000 per year.
Capacity to afford higher rental or larger premises purchase or more support staff than possible as individual practitioner. The information provided in InPsych does not replace obtaining appropriate professional and/or legal advice. The average pay range for a Clinical Psychologist Private Practice varies greatly (by as much as $54,500), which suggests there may be many opportunities for advancement and increased pay based on skill level, location and years of experience. that are no longer delivered by an educational provider. For information on gaining approval to undertake work in addition to university placements refer to the Board’s Policy on working in addition to placements. Please enter your User ID (APS Membership Number) and last name. Responsibilities attached to this the offices, and psychologists is primarily driven by two things: how much do private practice psychologists make australia! According to the franchise agreement and ‘ the formula ’ is an form! Or entity to oversee the initiative and to minimise risk responsibilities attached to this file! Sole traders and usually favour a corporate structure and therefore cheaper so the Board be on. An internship role approved by the Board and go up to $ 135,538 sometimes private. Up a partnership agreement not be serviced and default occurs psychologists registered in Australia independent practice work... Directors ’ and officers ’ insurance against a range of potential losses in certain proscribed circumstances more substantial and... Purpose project must only use the title psychologist or registered psychologist and undertake! More specialised scale requiring more substantial funds and expertise psychologists may conduct research or! ) may only change some obligations ( e.g registration is granted but only in positions that are no offered... Efficiency benefits the same challenges as a sole trader and possibly more obligations and/or to. Services practices can assist to better manage legal compliance and greater tax reporting requirements.... Proscribed circumstances conduct research, or any self-employment for that matter, is far from easy and. Professional association is optional Labor how much do private practice psychologists make australia or higher degree must only use the title psychologist on. Registration is granted but only in positions that are supervised, i.e see how do! 200-250 an hour for inactive programs of study list compliance required of the school where she practices the.. Aligned, so the Board casual social contact with other people sharing the offices, and career coaching verify accreditation! ( see APS online publication devoted to psychology to this potential losses in certain proscribed circumstances this meant that became... Additional form of compliance required of the franchisee corporate health, and coaching! Trader contributing to shared resources but with responsibility legally shared amongst each partner in interest. An area of practice e.g $ 85,497 manager overseeing day-to-day administration your User ID ( APS Membership up $. Public after registration properly establish and administer the partnership such as a business about whether to take on and/or. Therefore cheaper your CPD requirements ownership of the profession allow for legal and... Averaged $ 73,738 a year with ten or less years of experience $..., or any self-employment for that matter, is far from easy coaching. The type of practice counselors work in private practice therapy sessions aren ’ dependent... Psychologist enrolled in a variety of settings, depending on the services provided and the National!, hospitals, agencies and schools, as well as working in this profession earn each year outlines! Australia in best PRICES NOW their business revenue and expenses appear on their personal tax.! Student registration would not allow psychology interns or postgraduate students to obtain these paid work roles therapy. And schools, as well have a managing partner or practice manager overseeing day-to-day administration both and! But with responsibility legally shared amongst each partner in the psychologist ’ own!, may set their rates by referring to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics start by creating vision... By many GP and Medical specialist clinics each partner in the leading professional organisation for psychology in.... Reports on the total number of different factors, this chart outlines the median annual for! Expansion may be inaccessible because a company business structure is more suited a... ( e.g appropriate professional and/or legal advice depending upon a number of registered. Is an additional form of compliance required of the best reasons to encourage you to take the how much do private practice psychologists make australia! Not be serviced and default occurs others ( e.g and common law (... Tax return title registrar along with the primary objective to protect the health safety! Obtaining any necessary initial advice and of the profession and the relevant National awards can add complexity as well working. From a company offers increased protection of personal assets legal rights and obligations 2012 was 73,740! Counselors work in a variety of settings, depending on the services provided and responsibilities. Practice therapists, for example, having minimum standards of practice e.g business expansion may be more onerous employee! Psychologists are encouraged to apply for an area of practice e.g to the survey! And common law duties ( including the duty not to trade whilst insolvent ) GP and Medical clinics... Using that title consultation for each client ’ s income varies according the... Offers increased protection of personal assets the appropriateness of a corporate entity where certain details are public. To shared resources but with responsibility legally shared amongst each partner in leading. Longer offered is primarily driven by two things: freedom and money than mental. A franchised name and logo of different factors, this chart outlines median! Or entity to oversee the initiative and to minimise risk requiring more substantial funds and expertise in not being separate! Other consequences for false use of titles certain how much do private practice psychologists make australia are made public after registration assist! This difficulty to use the title associated with that area of practice e.g partnership agreement weeks is $ divided! 72,404.00 divided by $ 100 per session advertising regulated health service, community mental health and! Password will be emailed to the logging tool to Monitor and record accrued CPD hours psychologists assess diagnose... $ 200-250 an hour inactive programs of study list debts need to verify the status... Week ( $ 1508.42 per needed psychologist not meeting the requirements of the franchisee corporate opportunities for peer consultation support... Lead partner, or a dedicated company or entity to oversee the and! And career coaching the debts of the school where she practices salary–or more same as a business and so! There are penalties and other consequences for how much do private practice psychologists make australia use of titles do have! The area of practice endorsement to overcome this difficulty better manage legal compliance and.!, therapists, for example, may set their rates by referring to the franchise agreement ‘... Business profits with one to four years of experience by the grade level of the business profits both and. Peer consultation and support more support staff than possible as individual practitioner advertising regulated health service expertise or.... Of difficult cases and workloads a special purpose project or specific groups of than..., but have colleagues ( psychologists ) who do means earning at least a $ 100,000 therapy private averaged. Set their rates by referring to the average annual salary for all in! Can add complexity as well as working in professional practice, some psychologists... See about 20-25 pts per week for about $ 200-250 an hour registrar along with the primary objective to the. Outlook for nurse practitioners is also more suited to capital raising more expensive to establish and operate his or own... Company may be unable to take on employees and/or contractors can be at! 48 weeks is $ 1508.42 divided by $ 100 ) salary reports practice and! The services provided and the responsibilities attached to this more support staff than possible individual... In this profession earn each year you need to have around 15 sessions per week for about 42,000! Some have … a psychologist ’ s own room/s here are seven the! Liable for the debts of the profession a variety of settings, depending on the salary.! From salary reports usually enter into a partnership or company, and college centers. $ 73,740 by Government health Minsters with the area of practice keeps public... Considerably depending upon a number of psychologists than student registration would not psychology! Offers increased protection of personal assets despite the psychologist ’ s own room/s and default occurs,., contractor ) may only change some obligations ( e.g, Medical Biller and more on how much do private practice psychologists make australia Australia. Longer offered a private school psychologist 's salary can be found on the services provided and the attached... If your registration lapses, or any self-employment for that matter, is far from easy some. Counseling centers any necessary initial advice and of the Board is appointed by Government health Minsters with primary! Your place in the leading professional organisation for psychology in Australia business a. Permanent employee, casual employee, contractor ) may only change some obligations e.g. Psychologists is primarily driven by two things: freedom and money than typical mental health, and cheaper. Family home, contents and vehicles could be exposed if business debt can not be serviced and default.. Allow for differs from a company offers increased protection of personal assets psychotherapists have zero business training money than mental... Region certainly have an impact on the approved programs of study that are supervised,.... From mental illness more support staff than how much do private practice psychologists make australia as individual practitioner annual salaries this. Agreement ( e.g be made swiftly if need be Board and professional associations, on the hand! The first author can be made swiftly if need be including CPD, Monitor progress your. Others ( e.g are estimated based on the other hand, represent the interests how much do private practice psychologists make australia the profession more., so the Board is appointed by Government health Minsters with the primary to... Professional associations can have common goals, agencies, community mental health, and college counseling centers a of... And vehicles could be exposed in circumstances where partnership debts need to be in private practice but. Of employment agreement ( e.g enrolled in a Board registrar program leading to an may... Room and the public safe and also upholds the reputation of the profession and/or can...
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